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From: Beerio -- mighty drinker of beer and other intoxicants!
Category: Costumes/ Gear
Date: 08 Oct 2005
Time: 11:59:50 -0500
These are my notes for a realistic bullet/knife proof suit. It is a bit cryptic because I made the notes for myself and everything isn't explained. If you have any questions let me know. Make sure you use your safety glasses and gloves for experiments Honeycombs are a six-sided shape that disperses force through triangles STUFF TO BUY: 1. Railroad track or Stump or anvil-wood working tools to form stump (already have wood chisel and hammers) 2. Canvas (cotton) or Nylon 3. Variable resistor-Radio Shack 4. Magnetic particles-might need a variety of sources to get different sizes · magnetic inspection powder from welding shops · particles from burned steel wool (after mortar and pestle) · Small propane torch · particles scraped from the surface of video tapes · particles "mined" from sand with a plastic bag and a magnet 5. Sodium borate – Borax - already bought some jello with Sodium borate in it 6. Food dye? 7. Plastic protective sports equipment such as umpire equipment 8. Wool –fiber section? Some socks? Use hair and whiskers 9. Might need Kevlar 10. Nomax or Neoprene suit and/or Neoprene fiber 11. Might need Titanium 6al 4v 12. Duct tape – scotch is suppose to have a clear one that last 6 times as long 13. Powerful magnets-might need more · Super strong rare-earth magnets made of neodymium-iron-boron or samarium-cobalt - SC has more heat tolerance but is slightly weaker. Use foam and stationary lever with weight to measure indent to test effectiveness of fluids-soaked sock should be placed on top of foam HOW TO MAKE armor specifically: 1. Shell made of hard knife proof substance such as aluminum alloy (Alumina) or Titanium 6al 4v, Ti-13-11-3, ballistic steels (16 gauge steel), (it must be lightweight) Boron carbide (aluminum coating and fiber backing makes this very good but brittle without it!), or amorphous metal. It can also help blunt pointed bullets. (Due to struts, springs and servos this layer must be a hard shell not scale) · Use gorilla glue in order to glue hard powder/fragments to outside such as glass particles-hardness helps breaks bullets. · Chain and scale for gaps in hard shell – could you make a clay former to make rings and scales out of one of the above metals? · Make or buy complete chain mail for hidden suit · First part should be resistant to acid and bases-polyurethane, plastic coating, glass, diamond or some inert material ALUMINA: Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. AMORPHOUS: Transformer cores-‘soft’ magnets easily switching poles Rapidly cooled amorphous metal and rolling them into cores. Transformer bucket attached to a power pole that’s a bucket full of amorphous metal An alloy with five elements: zirconium, titanium, Nickel, copper, and beryllium Vitreloy-it proved to be just as amazing as Johnson had predicted. The strongest titanium alloys in common use in the world, when formed into a one-inch diameter bar can hoist 175,000 pounds. A same-size bar of Vitreloy can lift 300,000 pounds. -But it shatters easily Liquidmetal2, which marries the strength and elasticity of glassy metal to the graceful failure of ordinary metal, is 80 percent glass and 20 percent crystal. The crystals act like horsehair in old-fashioned plaster, cross-reinforcing the crack-prone amorphous metal. “Now I have matched the toughness And impact resistance of the best alloys out there, with two to three times the strength,” says Johnson. An exception is Johnson's glassy zirconium-beryllium alloy, now used in high-end golf clubs. Johnson's lab in 1997 came up with a glassy tungsten that not only self-sharpened-making it a potential replacement for uranium shells-but pointed the way to techniques for mass producing glassy metals with broader applications. Joseph Poon Jason Kang is investigating that sweet spot in the realm of Titanium-zirconium–based amorphous alloys similar to Liquidmetal2. Every day he puts pea-size chunks of metallic elements into little crucibles then zaps them to about 3,000°F with an electrical arc to make an alloy. If upon solidifying the resulting metallic “button” is reflective like a mirror, he knows instantly that he has made a glass. The surface reflects for the same reason the surface of a liquid reflects—the amorphous atoms form a smooth skin Research liquidmetal2 BORON CARBIDE - ONNEX can be made from boric acid and coal (carbon) LINK – US PATENT FOR MAKING BORON CARBIDE Typical Chemical Analysis · Total Boron 77.5% · Total Carbon 21.5% · Total Iron 0.2% · Total B+C 98% A boron carbide powder whose chemical compositions and contents of impurities meet the requirements of China and US Standards was produced by the reduction of boric acid with carbon in a carbon tube furnace. The B4C phase content of the powder has surpassed the calculated value given by the above standards. The calculated value of B4C phase was verified by X-ray diffraction coarse powder was subjected to intensive vibratory milling and acid-washed. A micron-fine powder with the chemical compositions being up to the Standard was gained. The present study indicates that the effect of comminution in vibratory milling is many times higher than that in common ball milling. The equilibrium particle size is much smaller and the time required to reach the equilibrium particle size is much sorter than that for common ball milling. Boron carbide is produced from boric acid H3BO3 or Boric oxide B2O3 and carbon containing materials in electric arc furnaces. Reaction is 2B2O3 + 7C = B4C + 6CO. Another method to produce submicron boron carbide powders was invented by William Rafaniello and William Moore of The Dow Chemical Company. Details can be found in US Patent # 4,804,525. Formula weight: 55.26 Density: 2.5 Melts/Boils: 2720K/3770KCommonly designated B4C (78.3% carbon theoretical but free carbon can be present in some grades). Sintered B4C is the hardest material available after diamond and BIN (however unlike the latter it is available in tonnage amounts). Boron carbide is a non oxide ceramic made by reacting various borates with carbon (coatings are formed by reacting borate vapors and carbon gases). Very high densification can be achieved by hot pressing extremely fine powders under vacuum or controlled atmosphere. B4C parts have a low specific gravity; high wear, heat and chemical resistance; high strength; and neutron absorbing properties (in nuclear reactors). However it's brittle nature and tendency to oxidize or react with various metals when heated limits its use in some abrasive and molten metal processing applications (however it can be employed to make refractory metal borides and light weight ceramic metal composites e.g. aircraft armor). B4C reacts with halogens and is used as a precursor in the production of nonoxide boron chemicals (e.g. BCl3) using the CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process. I think main problem has been torch is too small · *** Buy charcoal, aluminium foil, and boric acid and grind charcoal and mix it with boric acid. Then burn it till it is stiff. Perhaps best to burn it surrounded by charcoal? Grind it again. Place sheets of foil on bottom with lots of scrap beer can. Alternate powdered Boron carbide with aluminium (need a 58% to 70% BC mixture to make ONNEX) foil/scraps so that air cannot mix with it easily. Might need a steel cover to help keep pot hot. Heat to 661° C or 1221° F o Processing is done at temperatures less than 1200° C = 2192° F o Boron carbide should be able to scratch glass · When Aluminum cools melt or glue HDPE over it · B4C has a melting point higher than iron which is higher than Aluminum which is higher than HDPE · Remember that B4C needs a fiber backing because of potential for shattering-use gorilla glue to help give it strength · Polyurethane coating over everything · Mixing a boric oxide material and a carbon source separately in water then combining them forms the boron carbide precursor. Then, the aqueous mixture is heated sufficiently to remove substantially all of the water in the mixture and thermally decompose the mixture to a solid reactive mass containing intimately mixed boric oxide and carbon. The aqueous mixture is heated at temperatures in the range of about 180.degree. C. to about 1300.degree. C., preferably in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. to form the solid reactive mass. · Having formed the particulate boron carbide precursor, the precursor is heated in a hot zone to cause the reaction of B.sub.2 O.sub.3 with carbon to form B.sub.4 C. The reaction is carried out at a reaction temperature in the range of about 1550.degree. C. to about 2000.degree. C., preferably at a temperature of about 1600.degree. C. to about 1900.degree. C. Temperatures lower than 1550.degree. C. may result in the production of larger than submicron crystals of boron carbide or low yields of submicron crystals. The reaction temperature at the high end of the temperature range is limited only by the B.sub.4 C product fusing or sintering together. · The undivided particles of the reactive mixture of boric oxide and carbon, from the outer surface of the particle to its innermost portion, must be individually and separately brought up to the reaction temperature in a short period of time, i.e. in a matter of seconds, to produce submicron size boron carbide. The intimate mixture of boron oxide and carbon is preferably rapidly heated to a reaction temperature which is hundreds of degrees centigrade higher than the reaction initiation temperature of approximately 1350.degree. C. The mixture is maintained at the reaction temperature for a sufficient length of time to substantially complete the reaction to form submicron boron carbide. In addition, the particle size of the feed material must be small enough to allow the particle interior to also follow the rapid heating rate necessary for producing submicron crystals. · Prior to heating the precursor material to the reaction temperature, the precursor material is preferably ground to a particle size of less than 2000 microns, more preferably, less than 50 microns. Heat transfer to the interior of large, i.e. 20 mm, particles or large close packed agglomerates of finer particles will not occur at a sufficiently high rate that will form exclusively submicron particles. For example, a 3-inch diameter by 10 inch long cylinder of boric oxide-carbon mixture can be heated in a furnace controlled at 1750.degree. C. for one hour and fifty minutes, cooled to room temperature and examined for conversion to boron carbide. The outer 1 inch of the cylinder is reacted to form boron carbide crystals with a mixture of large, i.e. 1-20 micron, crystals whereas about 1 inch in diameter of the inner core of the cylinder remains unreacted; that is, the maximum temperature of said inner core was less than 1350.degree. C. It is found that the resistance to heat transfer for the large mass limits the heating rate in the interior such that the predominant crystal size is 10-20 microns. The same boric oxide-carbon mixture feed material may be ground to 1-2 mm and fed continuously into a 1700.degree. C. crucible at a rate which allows the individual particles to be heated to the surrounding temperature in several seconds with the result that no large crystals are formed and the product is entirely submicron boron carbide. For production of uniform narrow particle size distributions, a steady feed rate of well dispersed feed particles in a hot zone is preferred. · A boric acid solution was prepared by adding 27 lb of boric acid (H.sub.3 BO.sub.3) to 62.5 lb of water under constant stirring in a stainless steel vessel. In a separate container, 19 lb of corn starch was dispersed in 62.5 lb of water. The starch-water mixture was added to the boric acid solution while heating the resultant slurry. When the resultant slurry reached a temperature of 80.degree. C., the slurry was pumped into Teflon.RTM.-lined stainless steel trays. The thickness of slurry layered in the trays was about 1 inch thick or less. The trays were placed in a drying oven and allowed to dry at 120.degree. C. for 24 hours wherein a dried flake was formed. The dried flake was removed from the trays by scraping and calcined in a box furnace at 925.degree. C. for 4.5 hours in a nitrogen atmosphere. The calcined material consisted of a reactive mass of boric oxide and carbon. The calcined material was crushed and screened -12 mesh +45 mesh which formed the feed to the reactor. A graphite resistance furnace equipped with a water-cooled copper feed tube was used in this example. The feed tube was positioned 5 inches above a 7-inch diameter by 7 inch high graphite crucible. The entire system was evacuated and back filled with argon to obtain a nitrogen and oxygen-free inert atmosphere. The furnace temperature was increased to the control point of 1685.degree. C. A screw feeder was calibrated to deliver 4.6 grams per minute (g/min) of the -12 mesh +45 mesh boron carbide precursor prepared above. The feeder was then purged with argon and connected to the furnace so that the feeder would drop feed particles down the water-cooled tube into a hot graphite crucible. A flowing argon atmosphere was used during the reaction. The graphite crucible was heated in the sealed graphite resistance furnace to 1685.degree. C. An 1100 g sample of the boron carbide precursor was fed into the hot crucible for 4 hours, at a rate of 4.6 g/min. The furnace was then allowed to cool to room temperature (.about.30.degree. C.) and 176.2 g of boron carbide product was recovered in the crucible. The boron carbide recovered was washed for 24 hours in a mild HCl solution (pH.about.3) at 80.degree. C. After washing the boron carbide product, 174.5 g of the product remained. The boron carbide product consisted of soft aggregates of equiaxed boron carbide crystals which were 0.35 micron .+-.0.12 micron in size and which had a boron to carbon ratio of 4.05:1. The boron carbide was produced at a rate of 0.6 lb. B.sub.4 C/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor volume in a yield of 85 percent. FIG. 1 is representative of the boron carbide powder formed in Example 1 above and shows both soft aggregates and dispersed crystals. The particle size distribution of the product, including the soft agglomerates, is given in Table I. · 60 g of boric acid, 52.5 g of sucrose and 10 ml of ethylene glycol were blended in a beaker. The uniform mixture was placed in a 175.degree. C. drying oven for 24 hours, and 67.1 g of a dry, black, glassy-looking solid precursor resulted. Then, 20 g of this solid precursor was loaded into a 2.25 inches diameter.times.4 inches high graphite crucible. The crucible was placed in a furnace and inductively heated to 1900.degree. C. in .about.20 minutes and held at that temperature for 30 minutes. Then, the power was shut off and the furnace was allowed to cool to room temperature. An argon atmosphere was maintained in the furnace throughout the operation. The product was boron carbide and the yield was .about.3 grams. This experiment employs the method of Example 3 of U.S. Pat. No. 3,379,647. The particle size distribution of the product is given in Table I. Research self-healing materials · Dicyclopentadiene, or DCPD encapsulated · Grubbs' catalyst-comes into contact with it Diamond plating · Buijnsters made diamond layers by allowing methane gas (CH4) diluted in hydrogen gas to dissociate on a hot wire just above the substrate. The carbon atoms present in the methane dropped onto the substrate and formed a thin layer of diamond there. However, this technique did not work on a steel substrate. Graphite mostly formed on this. · Chromium nitride was found to work well · A surface treatment of steel with boron was also found to result in a good intermediate layer, even on stainless steel Sputtering · Putting aluminum on it- limited protection from radiation · Not necessary if it already has aluminum in it 2. Next layer needs to be HDPE (or UHMV?) that will protect against blunt trauma and help bulletproof suit. For additional protection take a piece of canvas or Kevlar and spray-glue (gorilla?) it to the inside (see next layer). This will help in case a jagged edge wants to break free. A vacuum former or heat gun should be used to form HDPE · Spacing important to avoid blunt trauma and to help heat distribution see below · HDPE-barrels · Try local car wash, perhaps some farm? · Aluminum can be sprayed (Sputtering) on outside to help stop radiation-as well as on outer shell · Suit must float on water so this layer is critical 3. Next layer spacing, hydrogel and foam insulation with Nomex suit underneath Nomex or Proban Should be under previous layer with Nomex cape with hood over everything. Nomax Survival Suit is a neoprene undersuit. - Neoprene is not as fire proof as Nomax · Can buy this from eBay · If not put above with cape the HDPE will melt and outer layer could as well · Spacing doubles as a holster for ammunition and grenades · The hard body armor has been stood off of the body by 2½ to 3 inches, so when the soldier is shot, the force is more evenly distributed to decrease injuries such as broken ribs · FFW's body armor is probably the biggest improvement, however. It sits on a series of foam pads around the rib cage, so there's a 2.5-inch gap between the harness and the body. It keeps the GI cool. And it's almost imperceptibly light -- unlike today's bulletproof vests, many of which are about as comfortable as that lead apron the dentist makes you wear during X-rays. But the scarab-like shell can take five to seven direct hits from a machine gun, and it doubles as a holster for ammunition and grenades. 4. Next layer needs to be Kevlar partially glued to previous layer or some other fiber based armor such as spider silk, spandex or nylon. This layer must be soaked in shear thickening fluid such as PEG (polyethylene glycol)/Silica/iron solution. Liquid armor is supposed to be 1:1 with PEG and glass particles. Due to solution this layer must be sandwich in-between waterproof layer such as gorilla glue or Reynolds wrap. (Surrounding layers could help waterproof). Use glycol when grinding glass or iron powder to keep it from getting in your lungs · This layer could also help with negative pressure-nylon used in one space suit · When worn without hard outer shell: · Need chain mail · Some vests are also designed to protect against knife attacks as well. This is done by coating the outer surface of the vest with tiny crystals of a sandpaper-like material or hiding a very thin plate of resin hardened glass-fibre sheet between the kevlar layers. · I do not believe combining dilatant and Magnetic armor will ever make them stronger than when they are stacked separately-but can try later · Must have pockets on inside for cooling fluid packages/impact gel o Use STF with PEG as cooling fluid-can use lower glass content to make it gel like o Packets must be as close to the body for cooling as possible and to prevent punctures and leaks Dilatant Dilatancy is a particle physics problem. Specifically, dilatancy results when excessive numbers of violent collisions occur between particles sheared at high shear rates. Instead of flowing smoothly around one another, the particles collide, attempt to climb up and over one another, and open the structure produced by the pile-up of particles. When this occurs, the measured viscosity increases. When extreme levels of dilatancy exist, high shear not only causes measured viscosities to increase, but it causes the pile-up of particles to bridge the complete cross-sectional area of a pipe or flow channel (creating a dilatant blockage) and all flow then ceases. · Silly putty - boric acid in silicone oil · Compare starch, crystallized starch, wet sand, and silicone oil to see which is strongest dilatant o Only starch and sand seem to be dilatant o Mixing them together seems to actually decrease dilatant value · Try using ground glass with slip differential fluid o PEG isn’t actually a dilatant fluid but slip differential fluid is · Crystallized starch could be dilatant o Asp reported that heating amylose -- the relatively soluble portion of a starch granule -- under wet conditions could cause a crystallization that realigns its molecules into a lattice structure. o Well here is a cool tip from my projects on armor, cornstarch crystals in water in a honey comb matrix (my testbed) could be hardened to insane points with the right freq power added. Around 1120 MHz it hardens to a rock, and when it’s off its slime. I'm working on a motion engine with this, as it could make very strong and fixable semi-bio motors work. o Could not seem to get it to crystallize – or simply wasn’t a dilatant fluid Other dilatant: · Highly loaded SiC, SiO2, WC and Al2O3 slurries and placed them in baggies (Ziploc) and fired a 22LR round into it · Silicone oils used in slip differential are dilatant · Grease is thixotropic o To make it a fluid a thixotropic fluid may be needed · Diamond dust as a dilatant? · Boron carbide as a dilatant? · Use water till you have an idea then PEG so you don’t waste the PEG o PEG isn’t an actual dilatant fluid o Perhaps a silicon oil will be best for STF · Clay, wet sand, starches, candy compounds, silicone polymer/silly putty, gum solutions are all dilatants · Research, iron aluminide and other such materials as well for STF · Gypsum paste (calcium sulfate-dry wall paste) and bentonite are rheopectic – don’t see how that could be used yet Glurch: Water, white glue, sodium borate (Borax), food coloring There are actually two solutions for Glurch. The first is 50% water, 50% white glue and food coloring. The second is a nearly saturated solution of sodium borate (I would experiment to see how much you actually need.) I usually just dump a couple tablespoons in a half-quart and shake.) Give the students equal volumes of the two solutions to mix. Glurch is a polymer that the children can actually watch polymerize. By mixing two liquids together and stirring, a sticky, gooey ball will form; this is Glurch. Because the newly formed Glurch has water trapped in its polymer matrix, it also exhibits a lot of the characteristics of solids and liquids. Though it seems solid, it will actually "pour" very slowly and it will take the shape of its container. Yet it sticks together and can all be picked up at once. Magnetic armor · How to wire it? o Either with wire looped around soft iron core or with electricity going straight through fluid or possible with some arrangement of magnets · Try adding glass to solve clumping and softness – use hammer and iron pot-spatula was used in STF example · Use propane torch to make iron particles smaller and less clumpy · Ferromagnetic fluids move despite the magnetic field. IE: The smaller the particle the less clumping · White Lithium Grease o Detergent is too soft · Different oil carrier- Viscosity will be important o All purpose oil - 3 in 1 so it wont dehydrate o Olive oil not a good choice · Stronger magnetic field would help softness · FFW uses silicon fluid-why? o Only reason found so far is temperature extremes o Could silicon be more receptive to dilatant forces? · What would happen if current were directly applied? · It might be best to put MF only on joints or where bending is needed if it doesn’t give enough strength regular armor such as HDPE is better · Magnetic armor in a fiber would work best in tubes · Liquid: · Ferromagnetic material could be ‘self healing’ when broke-magnetic powder would break and then glue back together-would have to be in liquid because the fiber would not flow back · Wires must be UNDER magnetorheological fluid or could be cut § Telephone wires have been suggested as ideal · Need a surfactant to keep fluid from clumping · Detergents · Grease · Emulsifiers · Paints · Adhesives · Inks · Some herbicides · Get powerful magnets to use as locks on the joints and for splints · The degree of stiffness varies depending on the strength of the field applied § Implies that stronger field makes stronger armor · Try using iron particles—magnetorheological is best but ferromagnetic might be used, both should be self healing (iron flattened in a hydraulic press-particles would normally be round, need them to be flat or any other stackable shape, different sizes increase strength as well) with glass and use a magnet to see if it stiffens superconductive materials would be best but currently need extreme cold · Problems with magnetic armor include: · Clumping-degausser or rotating disk · Settling-rotating disk or adding another material that forms a network that the iron particles can’t settle through silica (sand) suggested also elastics · MR fluids are typically formulated using carbonyl iron (that is iron made from a chemical process starting with an organic form of iron). This is the same iron that is used in fortifying cereals. Mash up the cereal in Total and then take a magnet to it, you will find very small particles of iron. · Water, oil and silicon are the three types of MR fluids. · The various carrier fluids and other components will affect seal compatibility, operating temperature range and other properties. Organic oil is always the best choice from a cost/performance perspective UNLESS the MR fluid will be in contact with an organic rubber like natural rubber or the temperature extremes are so great that you need silicone oil. If one is making a device that is not sealed and evaporation of the water would be a problem, then we would recommend the hydrocarbon oil based fluid. It is not a hazardous material but it will not come out of clothing easily. We make our fluids with different amounts of iron depending on the application. The iron content directly affects the yield stress of the fluid at a given magnetic field. Amounts range from approximately 20 to 45% iron. Higher iron content fluids are “thicker” in other words, increase the off-state viscosity as well and also increase the cost per liter of the fluid. · A typical fluid described by Winslow consisted of 10 parts by weight of carbonyl iron suspended in mineral oil. To this suspension add ferrous naphthenate or ferrous oleate as a dispersant and a metal soap such as lithium stearate or sodium stearate as a thixotropic additive. · Another fluid 9 parts by weight of carbonyl iron to one part of silicone oil, petroleum oil or kerosene, add grease or other thixotropic additive to improve settling stability. · In its simplest form, an MR fluid can be some iron filings suspended in corn oil, but more advanced materials are made from high-tech ceramics mixed with specialized synthetic polymer media. · Fluids created for professional purposes use emulsifiers to suspend very small oily (octane or kerosene) magnetic particles in water to avoid clumping. · The way the magnetic field would be applied in a suit would be that the electromagnets or micro magnets would be part of the actual fabric suit system. Use very small magnets as valves to turn these fluids on and off. Scientists have developed hollow fibers about 100 microns wide, and filled them with hollow beads that contain magnetic particles about 10 nanometers long. When exposed to a magnetic field the beads instantly line up to make the fabric about 50 times stiffer or stronger than it normally is. Can be used to create an instant splint wounded. · Anti-magnetic particles? When a diamagnetic material is placed near a magnet, it will be repelled from the region of greater magnetic field, just opposite to a ferromagnetic material. It is exhibited by all common materials, but is very weak. People and frogs are diamagnetic. Metals such as bismuth, copper, gold, silver and lead, as well as many nonmetals such as graphite, water and most organic compounds are diamagnetic including people · The magnet has pushed the water away since water is repelled by strong magnetic fields · There are four classes of permanent magnets: · Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB or NIB)-strongest · Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) · Alnico · Ceramic or Ferrite · 9-volt battery was used in Troy’s ‘superman suit’ · Factors that make a electro magnet stronger: · material in the core- soft iron core (magnetic permeability) § Could a magnet in the middle be even better? · the machining of the face of the electromagnet –smooth face and close to object · Research a possible square or rectangle design core for stronger magnetic field · more loops of wire (within reason) · Temperature · Current or voltage-twice I have read current · NASA uses it for sealing spacecraft parts in vacuum and controlling liquids in weightlessness · Research can be used as a biological/chemical deterrent? · Research an underwater suit? ***Fiber - Try to make artificial spider silk by three methods: Troy, MIT and Intuition COAT COTTON WITH SOFTEST THEN MEDIUM THEN HARDEST THEN USE DILATANT THEN USE PLASTIC BAG AND ALUMINUM TO SEAL IN DILATANT Use sirenge to make fiber? Rubber glue and glass? Troy: Hurtsy-made from quail feathers (beta-keratin), polymers (proteins, plastics, Kevlar) and resins (tree sap, glues) Liquid rubber was mentioned for the Uris Keep in mind that resulting mix must come out flexible. Think about ratios carefully Also soft armor works by a net so this stuff must either be made into a fiber or it must coat a fiber – use cotton t-shirt for ‘control’ in experiment 1. Mix Beta-Keratin with Alpha-Keratin: Try wool and feathers. I think the melting point is below 100C. Try boiling them. 50/50 ratio throughout this experiment a. Slice feathers into fibers and wool should be cut up as well b. Make sure windows are open because of fumes and smell and have glass containers ready - plastic could melt! Need 4 glass containers c. Idea is to melt it not to have any fibers left d. Pour half of it into one container onto t-shirt piece and half into another container with mixed feathers and wool mix and then coat onto t-shirt piece MIT: Premise is that I need 3 sections: soft stretchy, medium semi stretchy, hard not stretchy New mechanically enhanced, functional nanostructured polyurethane systems for soldier applications Investigate the role of soft segment ordering on the mechanical toughness of nanostructured polyurethanes Add rigid, orientable nanoparticles to thermoplastic polyurethane via solvent exchange Design and synthesize PEO(Polyethylene Oxide)-containing liquid crystalline or crystalline PU(Polyurethane) soft segments Disperse siloxane nanocages into polyurethanes through covalent and secondary bonds Synthesized novel PEO(Polyethylene Oxide)--containing elastomers with a three-fold increase in mechanical toughness compared to a commercial polyurethane, Elasthane http://web.mit.edu/isn/research/team01/project01_04.html 1. Polyurethane, Polyethylene, siloxane (Silicon, Oxygen, and methane) – will substiture ground glass for siloxane 1:1:1 ratio between polyurethane, Polyethylene and siloxane a. Grind glass and slice up milk gallon first b. Boil water and milk gallon until it melts or starts to evaporate c. Add Polyurethane and let it heat up till it melts the milk gallon d. Turn it off and add glass and stir quickly before it becomes hard e. Pour half into container onto t-shirt piece and other half into container with wool and feathers and stir well 50/50 ratio with liquid and fiber and coat onto t-shirt piece f. Make sure you clean the pot immediately Intuition: 1. Feathers that have been cut as to leave the fiber intact would probably be best-Polyurethane and PEG bond covalently and the keratin’s job is just to add strength by fiber not by chemical means 85 to 15 percent PU to PEG and this solution should be mixed 1:1 to a feather/wool mix then half should be coated onto t-shirt piece and other half put into another container 2. Another idea: Use Drano or other hair dissolver to melt hair and feathers then find some way to make it solid again? General Information: · Hair is strong. A single strand can hold 100g (3.5oz) of weight. A head of hair could support 12 tonnes. It is equivalent in strength to aluminium or Kevlar. Wet hair, however, is very fragile. · Synthesis and Characterization of Silk-like Polyurethanes and Polyesters using a Semicrystalline Soft Segment: A series of novel multiblock copolymers has been designed which mimic the self-assembled hierarchy of the native spider silk morphology. In spider silk, there exists large-scale crystalline ordered domains with a continuous elastomeric matrix; however, a second-level of order exists within the continuous phase. This research focuses on the design and synthesis of segmented polyurethanes and polyesters containing ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ segments. The hard segments form microcrystalline domains, which anchor the ends of the amorphous soft segments and create a large-scale physically cross-linked network. Unlike conventional thermoplastic elastomers, these materials contain a self-ordering group within the polymer chain, which can contribute to short range ordering within the continuous soft domains. In our current approach, a crystalline element is incorporated into the soft segment to create weakly oriented regions, which can undergo deformation during the strain process. Specifically, a polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide- polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer (BASF Pluronic) is used as the weakly ordered soft segment in these thermoplastic polyurethanes and polyesters. A variety of Pluronics with different PEO (semi-crystalline) and PPO (amorphous) block sizes are commercially available, so that we can systematically control the degree of order in the soft segment without synthetic strategy modification. A set of preliminary Pluronic-based polyurethanes and polyesters has been synthesized and partially characterized. Synthetic design optimization and further characterization of these materials is ongoing. · So far, the MIT researchers have succeeded in making fiber that's both soft and stretchy. Their next step will be to add nanoscale particles, each about the size of a single molecule, to help make the fiber stronger. Hammond says, "These nanoparticles will be designed to bind to a very specific region of the soft material, to reinforce it and make it stiffer. They'll also make the material resistant to tearing and cuts. · Spider silk is known to be a polymer with two distinct alternating regions. One region is soft and elastic; the other forms small, hard crystallites. It is assumed that this unusual structure is largely responsible for spider silk's remarkable properties. · It has been suggested that this soft part has two different regions, one of which is slightly harder than the other because the polymer fibers are partially aligned. If this idea is correct, spider silk actually has three different phases: hard, soft and intermediate. The hard segments anchor the partially aligned regions, holding them in place in a matrix of soft material. · She has been studying soft-segment polymers made with two different types of materials, hoping that the two materials will form separate phases, the way oil and water do when mixed. When her two-phased soft segments are combined with a hard segment, she will have a three-phase material that she hopes can imitate some of the properties of spider silk · Pollock is studying a different structural element--the interface between the crystallites in spider silk and the soft region around them. How the interfacial material slides past the crystallites without pulling away from them may hold the key to spider silk's toughness. · He is trying to build hard, crystalline sections of polymer that include two different materials. When his polymer sections crystallize, one material will form the bulk of the crystallites and the other will form thin layers on the outside of the crystallites. The latter essentially forms the interface between the hard crystallites and the surrounding soft material. Pollock is hoping that by varying the types of materials he uses, he can study the effect of the interface material on the toughness of the overall polymer. o Glass or boron carbide could be used · Polyurethane and keratin are similar to spider silk. · 85 percent of a segmented Polyurethane and Polyethylene glycol make spandex!-MIT wants it 3 times stronger than spandex · Polyurethane is in the wood wax aisle. Beta keratin is in feathers-Troy used it · Beta-keratin includes keratin of feathers, hooves, claws, beaks, scales, and horns; silk also is protein with beta sheet secondary structure Material specifics: · Polyurethanes-hard: Already a liquid so I don’t need to know the melting point · Polyesters PET and Polycarbonate o Polyethylene terephthalate – PET: amorphous (transparent) and semi-crystalline melting point below boiling § Amorphous PET-medium: better ductility but less stiffness and hardness § Semi-crystalline has good strength, ductility, stiffness and hardness o Polycarbonate hard (cd’s) – used in bullet resistant glass · Low density Polyethylene: soft and stretchy · Polypropylene medium between HDPE and LDPE · HDPE-hard: 130 degrees Celsius melting point after other ingredients are in can aid this and it will melt · Nanoscale particles-hard: about the size of a single molecule (hard crystallites) such as glass or Boron carbide · Collagen fibers stretchy: in jello are made of keratin melting point below boiling · Beta-keratin-hard: has been said to be similar to spider silk. Melting point? · Alpha-keratin-medium · Polyethylene glycol-soft and stretchy: melting point near room temperature Summary: glass or Boron carbide hard, Beta-keratin-hard, Polyurethanes-hard, Polycarbonate hard, HDPE-hard, Polypropylene medium, Alpha-keratin-medium, Amorphous PET-medium, Collagen fibers stretchy, Polyethylene glycol-soft and stretchy, Low density Polyethylene- soft and stretchy Other fibers: · Try making polyethylene fibers o Fishing line? · Research Kevlar prices · Nylon is about 2 times as strong as silk with a density of 1.15. Kevlar is over 7 times as strong as silk while having a density of 1.14. Spider silk would be stronger than Kevlar with dragline being the strongest of spider silks. Diamond whiskers are about 410 times as strong as silk with a density of 3.56, but are very difficult to produce. Carbon nanotubes, which promise to be even stronger than spider silk 5. Next layer needs to be a blunt trauma protection layer such as a gel (silicon perhaps), air bag, or liquid layer. · Umpire cushion could be good – bullets to baseballs · Research packaging materials such as bubble wrap 6. Next layer is comfort layer for sweat and heat distribution or cold. - A proper suit would be hot even in space! · Spandex can also be used · Certain waxes retain heat without changing their temperature so they can be used to cool and they release heat to keep you warm as well · Phase change materials (PCMs) are waxes that have the unique ability to absorb heat energy and emit heat energy without changing temperature themselves. These waxes include eicosane, octadecane, heptadecane and hexadecane. They all have different freezing and melting points and when combined in a microcapsule will store heat energy and emit heat energy and maintain their temperature range of 30-34 degrees Celsius, which is comfortable for the body. (Duvernet, 2003: 9) · Nylon to hold the tubes and help against negative pressure and ‘arm socket pull’ · Use a neck fan. · Eventually a water pump system could be used. · Research could PEG be soft enough as a cold solid? Consider combining with previous layer if it isn’t too hard! · PEG is used in body cooling packs! It freezes at 67.1 °F · PEG mix: 1 part water and 2 parts PEG is soft, need to see how good of coolant it would be? · Experiment with water, silicon, oil, iron particles and PEG ratios · Hardest cold: iron, water, oil/wax/PEG, silicon? 7. Helmet visor: Bulletproof glass usually consists of a polycarbonate layer sandwiched between layers of regular glass. A bullet pierces the exterior glass layer with ease, but the strong polycarbonate layer stops the bullet's motion before it can pierce the inner layer of glass. Bulletproof glass is usually 70-75mm thick One-way bulletproof glass is usually made up of two layers, a brittle layer on the outside and a flexible one on the inside. When a bullet is fired from the outside it hits the brittle layer first, shattering an area of it. This shattering absorbs some of the bullet's kinetic energy, and spreads it on a larger area. When the slowed bullet hits the flexible layer, it is stopped. However, when a bullet is fired from the inside, it hits the flexible layer first. The bullet penetrates the flexible layer because its energy is focused on a smaller area, the brittle layer then shatters outward due to the flexing of the inner layer and doesn't hinder the bullet's progress. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- REOCCURING THEMES: Iron, aluminum, and Titanium seem important in hard armor Silicon, Boron, Carbon seem important in everything Crystals and fibers (proteins –amino acids, plastics) floating in resin or compound of some type seem important-stretch and hardness SOURCES OF ABOVE MATERIALS: Charcoal/burnt paper-ashes Silicone oil, sand, glass, silicone paste Boric acid, sodium borate Plastics (oils-veggie, silicone oil, motor oil)---sugar->lipids and carbohydrates->oils and fats->plastics Steel wool Aluminum cans Amino acids: meat, beans, nuts, and eggs NOTES on characteristics of materials: · A unique, metallized ceramic material by floating a ceramic in an aluminum-bath that gives it hardness plus increased fracture toughness. The two most important characteristics of good ballistics materials -- hardness to break the bullet open and stop it, plus fracture toughness to permit multiple shots in the same area without harming the wearer. There are two other desirable qualities for ballistics materials: stiffness and durability in the field. If a Soldier drops this material -- called ONNEX -- while unloading it from a truck, or takes fire and drops down on his or her stomach, it isn't going to crack or break. Backed by high-ballistics fibers, the combination of materials will break assault-type bullets, plus catch any stray bullet pieces before they hit the person or someone else. --Seems to be boron carbide with aluminum coating and fiber (Kevlar probably) backing Spectra was mentioned · Armor either flexes and slows things down and spreads impact area or makes things rebound · Shape memory, impact toughness, damage resistance GENERAL ideas: · Diamond shape seems to give strength-see Glad’s trash bag ForceFlex · Fiber in concrete reduces brittleness same idea in armor and horse hair in plaster · Many layers better in design · Any strong, flexible, elastic fibre would probably make a good soft armor. · Canvas/glass armor · Resins used to stiffen fibers · Other layers of this undergarment would have other properties. For instance, the outermost could be a hydrogel, which would flash explosively into steam when contacted by the jet from a shaped charge, acting like reactive armor to disrupt it. The soft body armor and padding underneath would absorb most of the shock. Yes, this would injure the wearer; but much less so than if the portion of the jet, which penetrated the outer armor, actually made contact with the body inside. The primary use, though, would be to act as padding, helping to protect against explosive shocks, falls and such. · Hydrogel is used for wounds TROY Hurtubise: ''If you're going to get down with grizzlies, you've got to have gear you can count on,'' says Hurtubise, a buckskin-clad inventor of the old school - the school whose motto might be ''perseverance, improvisation, duct tape.'' He used nearly 7,000 feet of the stuff on the last prototype suit. According to an article in New Scientist, a British publication, the contrivance is made mostly of Boralyn E5 - a lightweight metal composite produced by California's Alyn Corp. - with a ''honeycomb'' shock-absorbing system packed between the endoskeleton and exoskeleton. Hardly any duct tape. ''This suit makes Robocop look like the Tin Man in `The Wizard of Oz,''' Hurtubise says. ''With the G-Man, you can tap dance in a minefield. You can take a dynamite blast. You can take AK-47 rounds all day. You can walk through 4,000-degree Fahrenheit heat. Name: Ursus Mark IV Materials: *Fireproof Rubber Exterior (from Minnesota) *Titanium Rubber Plates (from Hamilton, Ontario) *Suit joints made of chain mail (from France) *Tek Plastic Inner Shell (from Japan) *Inner layer of air bags *Duct tape Height: 2.18m (7'2"), with head-top camera attachment. Weight: 66.68kg (147lb) Headpiece: Two-chamber headpiece. Inner helmet: specially modified Shoei motorcycle helmet. Outer chamber: Aluminium/titanium alloy shell. Dimensions: approx. 60cm (2') deep; 45cm (1'6") wide. Cooling System: Battery-powered twin-fan ventilation system draws cool air into helmet and vents warm air. Radio System: Voice-activated two-way radio. Viewing System: Helmet-mounted miniature camera with wide-angle view screen. Black Box: Voice-activated recording device located on the rear-right side of head piece to record bear sounds or, in the event of a catastrophic failure of the Ursus Mark VI, last words. Defensive System: Trigger-finger-activated "blaster can" on right arm, capable of spraying a 38cm (15") diameter cone of bear-repellant for a distance of 4.6m (15'), for a duration of 7 seconds. Bite Bar: Pressure-sensitive strip located on right arm, to measure the biting power of a grizzly. TESTING ON SUIT *Truck: 18 collisions with a three-ton truck traveling at 50kmh (30mph). *Rifle: Shot at with a 12-gauge shotgun using "Sabot" slugs. *Arrows: Amour-piercing arrows, fired from 45kg (100lb) bow. *Tree Trunk: Two collisions with a 136kg (300lb) tree from a height of 9m (30'). *Bikers: Assault by three bikers - the largest, 2.05m (6'9") tall, weighing 175 kg (385lb). Biker armaments: splitting axe, planks, and baseball bat. *Escarpment: Jumped off cliff, falling more than 15.25, (150'). The Ursus Mark IV has some minor drawbacks, which will be remedied before Troy considers the design to be optimal. Eventually it will be possible to take more than five steps before falling over if the ground is not perfectly level. Future versions of the suit will be lighter and more flexible. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Hurtsy-made from quail feathers (beta-keratin), polymers (proteins, plastics, Kevlar) and resins (tree sap, glues) Superman suit is made from Hurtsy, Kevlar weave, cotton and magnetic particles. The components are layered and wired, and stiffen to impenetrability when attached to a nine-volt battery. He says the cushions; made with specially treated Kevlar, ceramics, metal alloys and the force-absorbing system from the Mark-VII Magnetic blast cushion-Each blast cushion includes 90 layers of Kevlar, 45 of which have been treated with Troy’s fireproof 1313 hardening formula. The layers are then put into a 20-ton press, and the result is a panel “105 times stronger than steel.” Could only half be treated because he wants half to retain flexibility? The panel is then attached to a chunk of Excalibur exoskeleton-the red fiber part, from the Mark-VII, which, Hurtubise said, is “self-healing” self-healing implies magnetorheological fluid and/or dilatant fluid and can absorb blunt trauma without malfunctioning. Hurtsy held four cotton makeup pads together under the strain of holding up a suspended 1,350-kilogram Volvo. Hurtsy also passed impenetrability field tests when fired on by sharpshooters hired by Hurtubise. "This will stop a .308 with 180 grains at 50 feet," Hurtubise said. "Stop it cold. We can stop a .300 Winchester Magnum at 50 feet. Hurtsy is 50-times, pound-for-pound stronger than steel and 85 per cent lighter." A time-coded video viewed by The Nugget shows the material stopping an arrow from a 112.5-kilogram crossbow. When it is retrieved and held before the camera, the tip is missing and the shaft is peeled back like a banana. MIT's Dryfoos speculates the material stiffens because the low-voltage electricity and magnetic particles act as catalysts. FUTURE FORCE WARRIOR and other army projects: Powering the entire suit is a 2- to 20-watt microturbine generator fueled by a liquid hydrocarbon. A plug-in cartridge containing 10 ounces of fuel can power the soldier's uniform for up to six days. Battery patches embedded in the helmet provide three hours of back-up power. Suit is magnetorheological fluid in Kevlar with hard outer shell. CARBON NANOTUBES--AKA Buckytubes or Buckyballs AND Diamond Whiskers AKA Diamond-coated wire AND ring carbon: Research how it is made with water Carbon nanotubes are typically grown using chemical vapor deposition techniques. These involve heating surfaces like silicon wafers or metal foil that contain microscopic metal particles in the presence of gases like methane or ethylene. The metal particles act as catalysts that extract carbon atoms from the gases; the carbon atoms then naturally form nanotubes. Ordinarily growth stops after about one minute as disorganized carbon soot accumulates. Water removes this amorphous carbon layer, making more catalysts particles active so that more nanotubes grow, and keeping the catalysts active longer to produce taller nanotubes. "This synthesis is highly efficient, meaning that almost all the catalysts on the surface are active in growing tubes," said Hata. The high density of the nanotubes causes them to grow vertically rather than in many directions. "This is all due to the use of water," said Hata. If the number of nanotubes in a given space is too low "the tubes would not be able to stand and form these structures [and] you would end up with a pile of spaghetti," he said. The nanotube structures can be easily removed from the surfaces and the catalysts used again to produce new structures, said Hata. Because the water keeps amorphous carbon from the samples, the process does not require a step to remove the amorphous carbon. The scientist demonstrations have shown that growth can continue for as long as 30 minutes. Their fastest growth to date is a 10-minute 2.5-millimeter sample. The scientist used lithography techniques to pattern the catalysts on surfaces in order to grow various three-dimensional structures, including arrays of cylinders and sheets. The scientist produced cylinders 1 millimeter tall and about one third of a millimeter in diameter. They also produced 10-micron thick sheets that can be laid flat to form thin films of pure carbon. Ray Baughman's group from the NanoTech Institute at University of Texas at Dallas produced the current toughest material known in mid-2003 by spinning fibers of single wall carbon nanotubes with polyvinyl alcohol. Beating the previous contender, spider silk, by a factor of four, the fibers require 600J/g to break. In comparison, the bullet-resistant fiber Kevlar is 27-33J/g. Diamond Whiskers: one centimeter of this would be approximately equal to about 10 centimeters of RHA, and with a density about one-third that of the homogenous metal armor it would be far lighter for the same protection level. Carbon Nanotubes: bonding is another key property that makes nanotubes attractive. Carbon atoms bond tightly to each other and gravitate toward the stable, hexagonal rings. Nanotubes "heal" themselves by shifting to replace atoms that get removed. SWNT (Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes) made from tubes of carbon atoms ("Buckytubes"). These are nearly as strong as diamond, are less brittle, and one type conducts electricity very well, while another is the best-known non-superconducting conductor of heat. They also have some other interesting properties. For instance, being hollow tubes they can have something wrapped inside them. If the right process is found, they may be much easier (and cheaper) to produce than diamond whiskers or diamond-coated wires. Buckytube composite armor would offer a protection level per centimeter of thickness a little under that of the diamond whisker composite described above, but at about half the weight. Beyond even these is a theoretical material, ring carbon. This would be at least an order of magnitude stronger than perfect diamond whiskers and both more chemically stable and harder. Suit armor made from interlocking, benzene-like rings of carbon atoms would protect the wearer from anything short of a heavy anti-tank weapon, with very little weight. Even then, more danger would come from the transmitted shock of impact than from penetration. A centimeter of this would be equal to roughly 100 thousand centimeters of RHA. Assuming such armor could be made, it would survive without scratch impacts, which would not only pulp the wearer but also powder the equipment inside. It would be best used as reinforcement for a more conventional composite armor. A few grams spread through the outer layer of the composite would greatly increase the protection of the armor (meaning the armor could be made thinner and lighter and still stronger). JOT: Currently, the best we can do for a true "hard shell" suit of armor would be a laminate of some sort. Perhaps titanium and graphite/epoxy composites, with maybe some boron fibers included would work. Faceplates would also be multi-layered, with an outer surface made from something like a ceramic glass, and backed by polycarbonate. Polarizing material and anti-fogging heating elements would be incorporated as additional layers. As mentioned below, the faceplate should also have some display capability built in. In the near future we can expect to be able to use things now known to exist but available only in laboratory quantities. This includes monocrystalline iron filaments, which have an incredibly high tensile strength (as mentioned in a previous JOHT). These could be a component in any of several different types of composites. At a rough estimate, a one-centimeter thickness of such a composite would be approximately equivalent to about 4 cm of RHA (Rolled Homogenous Armor, a military standard of comparison). Since it would have a lower density than RHA, the benefit in terms of weight saved would be even greater than this 4-to-1 ratio. Something in the works which is better than perfect iron whiskers would be perfect diamond whiskers, embedded in an advanced epoxy-bonding agent. This would produce a lightweight, inexpensive composite with strength and resilience even greater than that provided by monocrystalline iron. One centimeter of this would be approximately equal to about 10 centimeters of RHA, and with a density about one-third that of the homogenous metal armor it would be far lighter for the same protection level. LEVELS OF PROTECTION CHARTS: Level Tested for Comment III .308 Winchester Full Metal Jacket =7.62 X 51 mm NATO6 rounds at ~ 2,750 fps(~838 mps). ~1/4" Ballistic Steel (6 mm)~1/2" Ceramic (13 mm)~1" Polyethylene (25 mm) IV .3006 Armor-Piercing. 30 M2 APOne round at ~ 2,850 fps(~869 mps) The highest rating for Body Armor. ~ 3/4" Ceramic (18 mm)~1/2" Ballistic Steel (12 mm) ULTRA-LIGHTPolyethylene0.75" thick Level IIIStand-Alone ONLY3.0 lbs 10" X 12" $ 380each LEVEL III-A+ SYSTEM Finally, we have our III-A+ vest at 23.1 Oz./Sq. Ft., 8mm thick and stops the same 7.62mm x 25mm Tokerov round as mentioned above, but at 1470 Ft./Sec. – 1500 Ft./Sec. The polyethylene armor material achieves III-A+ performance at 12.8 Oz/Sq.Ft. and 7.5mm of thickness